Response: Paris Agreement
The 2015 Paris Agreement
- This is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), dealing with greenhouse-gas-emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance.
- The goal is to keep the increase in global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels; and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C, by reducing emissions as soon as possible.
- Adopted by 196 state parties 12 December 2015, and signed by 189 by February 2020.
- Under the agreement (Article 4, paragraph 2) each nation that signed the accord, including New Zealand, must determine, plan, and regularly report their contribution to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the impacts of climate change. These pledges are called Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs).
Aims and processes
The aim is to reach peak global greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible, and to thereafter rapidly reduce emissions based on the best available science. To do so means reaching net zero emissions during the second half of this century.
Each climate plan reflects each country’s ambition for reducing emissions, taking into account its domestic circumstances and capabilities. This because some countries will be able to achieve this sooner than others based on their sustainable development goals and efforts to eradicate poverty, as these are critical development priorities for many developing countries.
However, it’s a non-binding agreement. That is, there are no mechanisms to forces any country to set a specific emissions target by a specific date.
In December 2019, the Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Act was passed to support New Zealand’s goals under the Paris Agreement.
- 5% reduction below 1990 gross emissions for the period 2013-2020
- 30% reduction below 2005 (or 11% below 1990) gross emissions for the period 2021-2030.
- Net zero emissions of all greenhouse gases other than biogenic methane (agriculture) by 2050
- 24-47% reduction below 2017 biogenic methane emissions by 2050, including just a 10% reduction below 2017 biogenic methane emissions by 2030.
Net emissions means gross greenhouse gas emissions from all industrial activities, burning fossil fuels for energy, and agriculture, minus carbon sinks from forestry, changing agricultural to improve soils, and regenerating natural ecosystems. However, instead of declining, global emissions continue to increase each year. Due to reduced transport, Covid-19 has meant a temporary respite of carbon dioxide emissions. However, that has not reduced agriculture emissions in New Zealand and elsewhere. Manufacturing in China has also resurged. Moreover, dangerous tipping points are being breached, which means natural carbon sinks are now becoming sources of methane and carbon dioxide.
References and further reading
- Ministry for the Environment: About New Zealand’s emissions reduction targets
- 2020: Gibson; New Zealand’s Paris target too weak for 1.5C – official advice to Govt; Stuff.co.nz
- 2019: Tollefson; The hard truths of climate change—by the numbers Nature special report
- 2015: The Paris Accord
- IPCC: Special Report – Global Warming of 1.5°C