One Billion Trees
(Image: Sonny Whitelaw – Hurunui District)
One Billion Trees
“Our past climate inaction means New Zealand now needs a rather extreme number of trees in a very great hurry. The question is how are these going to be delivered? And at what sacrifice?” – ‘The sea of pines that is going to be needed to balance the NZ carbon budget’, Stuff 2019
- Under the Paris Agreement and New Zealand law, we must reduce net carbon emissions 30% by 2030 (178 million tonnes) and 100% by 2050. The One Billion Trees project, which is now finished, was run by Te Uru Rākau, a business unit within the Ministry for Primary Industries not the Ministry for the Environment.
- The aim was not to reduce net emissions by storing carbon in trees, but to create jobs and make money for the industry through carbon credits.
- The impetus to plant exotic forestry conflicts with protecting and enhancing biodiversity, putting the climate at risk.
Balancing the carbon budget: becoming ‘net zero’
Taking too much carbon and other greenhouse gasses (together called eCO2) out of the ground and burning them to fuel our modern lifestyles, and converting vast areas of the planet from carbon-absorbing forests to carbon-emitting intensive agriculture, is changing the comfortable climate that supported us for 10,000 years. While we can’t undo many of the changes now underway, we can reduce the impacts and adapt to what’s coming, by:
- Reducing our carbon spending: rapidly transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy and moving from outdated intensive agriculture to restorative agriculture.
- Saving carbon by capturing and storing it back underground. Often called ‘drawdown’ or ‘sequestration’ the single best way to do achieve this is to restore nature so that it can capture (draws down) and store (sequesters) carbon permanently.
“Restoring a third of the areas most degraded by humans and preserving remaining natural ecosystems would prevent 70% of projected extinctions of mammals, birds and amphibians. It would also sequester around 465 gigatonnes of CO2—almost half of the total atmospheric CO2 increase since the Industrial Revolution.” – Strassburg et al, 2020.
The ‘One Billion Trees’ Project: what it really meant
“Natural regeneration is occurring on Banks Peninsula on a massive scale, but because it is not financially incentivised we increasingly see large areas destroyed by aerial spraying as landowners perceive native vegetation or its nurse canopy as an invasive weed affecting income rather than carbon sequestration with potential to earn income. We submit that this is utterly counterproductive to the goals of the Climate Change Response Act. At best carbon sequestered in these naturally regenerating areas is not being included on the national register, at worst it is being replaced with methane emitting pastoral farming. Although we are Banks Peninsula focussed, we are aware of the same issues around the country.” – Submission to the Parliamentary Select Committee hearings for the Climate Change Response (Emissions Trading Scheme) Bill, February 2020
While the title was inspirational, the ‘billion’ number was misleading as it included replacing existing commercial exotic forestry, 50% of which is being or is soon due to be harvested and in need of replanting just to maintain existing commercial forestry levels. The other 50% was intended to be a mix of new plantation forestry and native trees.
So ‘one billion’ trees really meant around 500,0000 additional trees.
That’s still a lot of carbon-absorbing trees, right?
No, not if the true carbon cost of harvesting exotic trees, lost ecosystem services, lost soil carbon, and damages to the environment and were considered in the real cost.
“In a thriving forest, a lush understory captures huge amounts of rainwater, and dense root networks enrich and stabilize the soil. Clearcutting removes these living sponges and disturbs the forest floor, increasing the chances of landslides and floods, stripping the soil of nutrients and potentially releasing stored carbon to the atmosphere. When sediment falls into nearby rivers and streams, it can kill fish and other aquatic creatures and pollute sources of drinking water. The abrupt felling of so many trees also harms and evicts countless species of birds, mammals, reptiles and insects. – Jabr, The Social Life of Forests, 2020
“…munched on by insects and exposed to microbial bugs in the soil, invading species released 2.5 times the carbon dioxide from the soil into the atmosphere, compared to natives. Lincoln University researcher Dr Lauren Waller said the exotic plants interact very differently with the animal and soil microbes around them. The difference in carbon release was thought to stem from the introduced plants’ ‘higher-quality and quantity’ leaves. ‘These were more palatable to insect herbivores, and sped up rates of decomposition by soil microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi,’ she said.” – Stuff, 2020
The project was run by Uru Rākau, a business unit within the Ministry for Primary Industries. Their mandate was to work with the Department of Conservation (DOC), Crown Research Institute for forestry (SCION), regional and district councils, and organisations such as the QEII Trust to deliver optimal outcomes at regional and local levels. To maximise biodiversity goals and/or provide high-value ecosystem services, they offered landowners up to 3 times more (up to $4,000/ha) to plant native forestry than exotic plantation trees ($1,500/ha). But in reality, reinstating native forests cost 10 to 1,000 times more than exotic forestry.
Natives grow slowly so they don’t return as fast a profit as exotic plantation, even though they permanently lock away carbon in the soils as well as trees. But these benefits weren’t considered under the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS). In fact just the stumps and roots of an already harvested radiata pine forest bring in more revenue than an intact native forest of the same age (Fig. 2). The end result is that opportunities to regenerate natives forests were and still are often sacrificed to plantation forestry.
The co-benefits of restoring biodiversity and the critical life-supporting ecosystem services they provide are still ignored under the ETS. While plantation forestry is turning a quick profit, it’s not ‘forest restoration’. This fixation on making money quickly is putting the climate at risk (Fig. 1).
Exotic forestry: the real costs and risks
No detailed budget analysis was ever undertaken as to the viability of the OBT. This is because there were (and still are) complex fiscal, accounting, and design implications in terms of the location, scale, and purposes of tree planting, and the uncertain future of carbon prices under the Emissions Trading Scheme. The value of harvested forestry also is uncertain, given the Bonn Challenge to restore 350 million hectares globally by 2030 will likely result in a global oversupply of plantation forest products in coming decades.
The carbon cost
Wood products are often regarded as ‘carbon neutral’. In reality the true life-cycle carbon cost is ignored by the forestry sector as it’s virtually impossible to calculate. These costs include the carbon-emitting heavy machinery cost of harvesting, shipping—mostly to China—and converting wood into products, which are then transported around the globe. Most of the carbon stored in those wood products, whether it’s paper or houses or furniture, eventually ends up burned or rotting in land fills, releasing the carbon back into the atmosphere instead of permanently locking it away.
Climate change risks: wind, higher temperatures, drought
There are serious and urgent questions about the financial viability of planting exotic tree species that may not survive predicted changes to New Zealand’s climate over the coming decades (Figs. 3 & 4).
“We find that subsequent droughts generally have a more deleterious impact than initial droughts, but this effect differs enormously by clade and ecosystem, with gymnosperms and conifer-dominated ecosystems more often exhibiting increased vulnerability to multiple droughts.” – Anderegg et al (2020)
Climate change risks: floods and soil erosion
One key reason for planting trees is to reduce the impacts of floods and soil erosion. But as the climate changes, alpine-fed rivers are likely to flood more frequently. The preferred method of harvesting plantation blocks in New Zealand is to clear the entire block, leaving nothing but ‘slash’ behind, making the land highly vulnerable to floods and soils erosion (Fig. 4).
“…The East Coast is experiencing widespread environmental and community damage from forestry slash during the last three consecutive winters. Millions of tonnes of logging debris have been washed down onto 3 farmland, rivers, shoreline, beaches and into marine environments. Piles of debris were strewn across properties, and had knocked some houses off their foundations, covered farmland, blocked waterways, damaged bridges, clogged beaches and spoiled marine areas.” – Overseas Investment Amendment Bill (No 3) Select Committee Submission
Climate change risks: wildfires
There is an increasing risk of wildfires, particularly from pine and eucalypt forests that contain volatile flammable compounds. These compounds become more concentrated as the climate grows warmer and dryer, making the trees even more flammable.
In the South Island, there is rush is to plant exotic species (Fig. 5). Meanwhile, wilding pines that continue to spread at an alarming rate (see below) were directly implicated in the 2020 Mackenzie fire.
Pine forests leading to an increase in atmospheric methane?
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and the amount in the atmosphere is rising rapidly. The volatile compounds produced by pine forests (which give them their distinctive smell and make them highly flammable) remove chemicals that help break down atmospheric methane. In short, while pine forests may mop up carbon, they may lead to an increase in methane, a far more potent greenhouse gas.
Soils are often overlooked when it comes to storing carbon, but the Earth’s soils contain about three times the amount of carbon in the atmosphere and four times the amount stored in all living plants and animals. The soils of pine forests that have replaced native hardwoods in Germany do not sequester nearly as much methane as native forests.
A race against time: sacrificing biodiversity and our climate beyond 2050, to reach net zero (in accounting terms but not reality) before 2050
As Charlie Mitchell points out in this interactive article, the question of planting natives versus exotics is a ‘rabbit vs hare’ problem. New Zealand is committed to achieving net zero emissions by 2050. That’s less than the lifetime of plantation of exotic radiata pines. University of Canterbury forestry lecturer Dr Euan Mason estimates that because natives are too slow growing, to meet this accounting commitment and limit the impacts of climate change, we need to plant 5 billion of these fast growing pines (Fig. 6). And because the climate already is passing dangerous tipping points, we need to drawdown greenhouse gasses as fast as possible.
Modelling by the Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment estimates that an extra 2.6million ha. of forestry will be needed by 2050 plus an additional 2.8million ha. by 2075 just to maintain NZ at net zero.
Currently, around 45% (12.1 million ha.) of NZ’s land mass is agricultural. Over the past 2 decades the trend has been to remove trees and convert farms and native ecosystems into intensive, industrial scale dairy farms requiring investment irrigation, which has led to a (still ongoing) rapid decline in waterways and destruction of wetlands.
“Since the 2012…over a hundred thousand hectares of true land-use change [has been] going on around wetlands, scrub being cleared, and dairy land-use intensification.” – Landcare Research, 2020
“Even the most egregious offences – including a dam built on a wetland, clearance of a nationally endangered form of kānuka, and aerial poisoning of swathes of regenerating native bush – often prompted little more than a warning from authorities.” – Charlie Mitchell, Stuff, Oct. 2020
In places like Canterbury and Southland, planting exotics is vastly outnumbering native species (Fig. 5). At the same time right across New Zealand, native forests, grasslands, and wetlands continue to be ‘under attack’ with offenders facing little consequences.
The Forest Owners Association estimated that upwards of one million hectares of New Zealand’s 1.7-million-hectare plantation forests were either directly owned or managed by foreign interests.
Wilding pines: the wrong tree in the wrong place
“…lose $4.6 billion in productivity through reduced water available to farmers and hydro-electricity schemes over the next 50 years, and through more money needed for forest fire prevention—or save the economy $5.3b over 50 years, by getting on top of the wilding pine problem and freeing up more productive land.” – MPI report to 2019 NZ Budget
New Zealand has an unenviable history of planting conifer forests in unsuitable and/or inaccessible terrain subject to excessive erosion (see Fig. 4). Many species of conifers have self-seeded on prime agricultural lands and displaced globally rare ecosystem including tussock grasslands that, combined with associated wetlands and peatlands, can sequester higher levels of eCO2 than these conifers. These trees also remove water from catchments already depleted by intensive agricultural practices, and they destroy the hydrology of rivers, leading to floods and erosion. Further, they’re exacerbating fire risks at a time when vastly more resources are needed to combat the growing number and intensity of forest fires each year. So while it’s true that mature wilding conifers do absorb CO2 , they currently cover more than 1.8 million ha of land, causing economic losses in the billions and displacing native species and entire ecosystems that provide(d) essential services that are needed in the face of a changing climate. In spite of $11 million every years spent to control them, they’re spreading at an estimated rate of 5% annually.
At that rate, not including the added impact of planting five times as many conifers needed to balance New Zealand’s carbon budget, 20% of NZ will be covered in wilding pines, while the original forestry block owners that planted them are not liable for their costs.
The one small piece of good news is that unlike other conifers, radiata pine does not commonly ‘wild’. As Professor Euan Mason points out, radiata has a ‘…superpower, growing fast and hoovering carbon dioxide while it’s still young, leaving other trees in a cloud of wood-chip.’
When a few individual radiata pines are left following plantation harvesting, they attract birds that carry and in turn drop seeds of native species. New growth of native forests spread out from around these solo mature radiata, and in places where high winds have felled them, they often serve as protective nursery areas for native samplings to take hold. Strategically placed (‘the right tree in the right place for the right reasons’) radiata might help NZ meet its 2050 obligations and then act as a nursery for natives to drawdown CO2 beyond 2050.
Under the ETS, owners of wilding conifer stands that meet the criteria of a post-1989 forest can register for carbon credits without any obligation to manage the spread of wildings.
‘The right tree in the right place for the right reason’
The IPCC recommendations to eat less meet and the 2025 government-imposed deadline for NZ agriculture to enter the ETS (albeit with a 95% discount) is placing pressure on the rural sector to reduce emissions. For desperate over-capitalised farmers, plantation forestry is often viewed as a lifeline. In spite of objections and concerns from multiple sectors, the agri-industry is still promoting fast growing radiata pine as an opportunity for sheep, beef and dairy farmers to integrate forestry (native and exotic) into their business, provided they do their homework and get the correct advice. This includes:
- An ecological assessment of the suitability of plantation species in any given area based on climate change modelling over the lifetime of the crop.
- A business/financial model that includes the marketing value of environmental accreditation and ecosystem services.
- A risk assessment that includes fire management and landscape scale hydrological changes known to negatively impact watersheds in areas predicted to experience higher temperatures and winds.
What is ‘eCO2′ or ‘CO2-e’ sequestration
Some greenhouse gasses are many times more powerful than others when it comes to warming the atmosphere. This is called their global warming potential (GWP). Three of these gasses, carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4) are the main concern. Of these, CO2 from burning fossil fuels (coal, oil etc) is the largest. For this reason, CO2 is used as a benchmark against which the GWP of all other gasses are measured. This benchmark is called the carbon dioxide equivalent or CDE. This is often written as CO2eq, CO2e, or eCO2.
Some greenhouse gasses stay in the atmosphere longer than others, so time is also included in the equation. Over 100 years, the GWP of methane (CH4) is 25 times that of CO2, so it’s written as 25CO2-e. The GWP of nitrous oxide (N2O) over the same time period is 298, written as 298CO2-e.
References and further reading
- Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme
- Ministry for the Environment: Climate Change Response (Zero Carbon) Amendment Act
- Ministry for the Environment: 2019 Measuring Emissions: A Guide for Organisations
- Ministry for the Environment: 2019 Measuring Emissions: A Guide for Organisations. 2019 Summary of Emission Factors
- Ministry for the Environment: New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory
- Ministry for Primary Industries: Agricultural Inventory Advisory Panel
- Ministry for Primary Industries: One Billion Trees Fund Report on Policy and Design Recommendations
- Ministry for Primary Industries: Wilding Conifers
- Ministry for Primary Industries: Annual Report Pūrongo ā-Tau 2018/2019
- Ministry for Primary Industries: Cabinet Report One Billion Trees Programme
- New Zealand Government Submission under the Paris Agreement: New Zealand’s Nationally Determined Contribution
- Maanaki Whenua Landcare Research: What’s happening on our land?
- Maanaki Whenua Landcare Research: Agricultural greenhouse gasses
- Maanaki Whenua Landcare Research: Methane emissions
- Kyoto Protocol: Reference Manual on Accounting of Emissions and Assigned Amount
- Predator Free New Zealand
- Scion Research: the One Billion Trees Programme
- The Bonn Challenge
- Department of Conservation: Wilding Conifers
- Ministry for Primary Industries: Wilding Conifers
- Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment: Farms, forests and fossil fuels: The next great landscape transformation?
- 2020: Friggens et al; Tree planting in organic soils does not result in net carbon sequestration on decadal timescales Global Change Biology June 2020 (open access)
- 2020: (Full videorecording) submissions to the Parliamentary Select Committee hearings for the Climate Change Response (Emissions Trading Scheme) Bill, February 10, 2020
- 2020: Banks Peninsular Native Forest/Climate Change Group written submission to the Parliamentary Select Committee hearings for the Climate Change Response (Emissions Trading Scheme) Bill, February 10, 2020
- 2020: Waller et al; Biotic interactions drive ecosystem responses to exotic plant invaders, Science 368/6494, pp 967-972
- Stuff article on the research by Lincoln University: ‘Bugs cause exotic plants to release more carbon than natives‘
- 2020: Anderegg et al; Divergent forest sensitivity to repeated extreme droughts, Nature Climate Change 10, pp1091–1095
- 2020: Strassburg et al; Global priority areas for ecosystem restoration. Nature article (open access PDF)
- 2019: Stuff interview with Professor Euan Mason: The sea of pines that is going to be needed to balance the NZ carbon budget
- 2019: Lewis & Wheeler; Restoring natural forests is the best way to remove atmospheric carbon, Nature article (open access)
- Lewis & Wheeler open access article on the above; The scandal of calling plantations ‘forest restoration’ is putting climate targets at risk, The Conversation
- 2019: Schwärzel et al: How afforestation affects the water cycle in drylands: A process‐based comparative analysis: Global Change Biology
- 2019: IPCC: Climate Change and Land
- Time Magazine report on IPCC recommendations to eating less meat
- Stuff report on same
- 2019: Beef & Lamb; Money can grow on trees
- 2019: Radio NZ: One billion tree plan flawed, says climate scientist
- 2019: McCrone; Stuff report: The sea of pines that is going to be needed to balance the NZ carbon budget
- 2019: Gibson; The unpopular tree sucking carbon from our air, Newsroom
- 2018: NZ Productivity Commission report
- 2018: Cho; Can Soil Help Combat Climate Change? Earth Institute Columbia University
- 2016: Mark et al; Ecosystem services in New Zealand’s indigenous tussock grassland: conditions and trends
- 2013: Zhou et al; Forest cutting and impacts on carbon in the eastern United States, Nature Scientific Reports 3/3547
- 2009: Paul & Ledgard; Vegetation successions associated with wilding conifer management, Weeds of the Natural Environment
- Stats NZ: Land Use Change